An international multicentre study on the allergenic activity of air-oxidized R-limonene

Johanna Bråred Christensson, Klaus E. Andersen, Magnus Bruze, Jeanne D. Johansen, Begoña Garcia-Bravo, Ana Giménez-Arnau, Chee Leok Goh, Rosemary Nixon, Ian R. White

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background. Limonene is a common fragrance terpene that, in its pure form, is not allergenic or is a very weak allergen. However, limonene autoxidizes on air exposure, and the oxidation products can cause contact allergy. Oxidized R-limonene has previously been patch tested in multicentre studies, giving 2-3% positive patch test reactions in consecutive patients. Objectives. To investigate whether oxidized R-limonene 3.0% in petrolatum, with a stable concentration of the main haptens, limonene hydroperoxides (Lim-OOHs), could be a useful tool for the detection of contact allergy in an international setting. Methods. Oxidized R-limonene 3.0% (Lim-OOHs 0.33%) pet. was tested in 2900 consecutive dermatitis patients in Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, and Australia. Results. Overall, 5.2% (range 2.3-12.1%) of the patients showed a positive patch test reaction to oxidized R-limonene. Doubtful reactions were found in 7.0% of the patients (range 0-24%). Few irritant reactions were seen. Conclusions. Oxidized R-limonene at 3.0% pet. with a specified content of Lim-OOHs 0.33% is a standardized and useful tool for the detection of contact allergy in dermatitis patients. Many patients showing positive patch test reactions to oxidized R-limonene would not be informed of their fragrance allergy if this specific test had not been performed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)214-223
JournalContact Dermatitis
Volume68
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2013

Keywords

  • allergic contact dermatitis
  • autoxidation
  • CAS 5989-27-5
  • dose per unit area
  • fragrance allergy
  • hydroperoxides
  • limonene
  • oxidation products
  • patch test concentration
  • patch testing
  • terpenes

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