© 2017, Springer Science+Business Media New York. This study uses the global non-radial Malmquist index to measure performance change in the educational systems of 29 countries/economies participating in PISA 2003 and 2012 for students at age 15 in the disciplines of mathematics and reading. This methodology is particularly appropriate both for its desirable properties as well as its suitability for the educational context. Results indicate a positive evolution in educational systems’ performance during this period. This improvement is mainly due a positive efficiency change, which offsets the negative technological change observed. Nevertheless, a deeper scrutiny at the country level shows that results varied remarkably among them.
- Global non-radial Malmquist index