Radical cystectomy with lymphadenectomy and urinary diversion is the gold standard treatment for bladder cancer in organ-confined muscle-invasive disease and selected patients who have high-grade non-muscle-invasive disease or are non-responders to BCG. The main and most morbid complications of this challenging surgery are related to the use of bowel for urinary tract reconstruction. For this reason, many past projects were devoted to finding an alternative to the use of bowel. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the evolution of alloplastic bladder substitution. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed using the Medline National Library of Medicine database and Google Scholar. Keyword used were cystectomy and intestine/bowel, replacement, bladder substitution, organ replacement, artificial bladder, alloplastic material, biomaterial, and tissue engineering. Various prostheses have been proposed for replacement of the urinary bladder, silicone being the most frequently used material. The first published model of an alloplastic bladder was described by Bogash et al. in late 1959, while the last, in 1996, was suggested by Rohrmann. Interprofessional collaboration, recent advances in technology, and tissue engineering may help in developing suitable bladder prostheses. Urologists as well as engineers and the industry need to give this matter serious attention. © Springer Science+Business Media, B.V. 2012.
- Bladder tissue engineering
- Urinary tract