Alcohol-free synthesis, biological assessment, in vivo toxicological evaluation, and in silico analysis of novel silane quaternary ammonium compounds differing in structure and chain length as promising disinfectants

Ghada Tagorti, Burçin Yalçın, Merve Güneş, Ayşen Yağmur Burgazlı, Tuğçe Kuruca, Neslihan Cihanoğlu, Esin Akarsu, Nuray Kaya, Ricard Marcos, Bülent Kaya

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Abstract

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are commonly used as disinfectants for industrial, medical, and residential applications. However, adverse health outcomes have been reported. Therefore, biocompatible disinfectants must be developed to reduce these adverse effects. In this context, QACs with various alkyl chain lengths (C12-C18) were synthesized by reacting QACs with the counterion silane. The antimicrobial activities of the novel compounds against four strains of microorganisms were assessed. Several in vivo assays were conducted on Drosophila melanogaster to determine the toxicological outcomes of Si-QACs, followed by computational analyses (molecular docking, simulation, and prediction of skin sensitization). The in vivo results were combined using a cheminformatics approach to understand the descriptors responsible for the safety of Si-QAC. Si-QAC-2 was active against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 13.65 to 436.74 ppm. Drosophila exposed to Si-QAC-2 have moderate-to-low toxicological outcomes. The molecular weight, hydrophobicity/lipophilicity, and electron diffraction properties were identified as crucial descriptors for ensuring the safety of the Si-QACs. Furthermore, Si-QAC-2 exhibited good stability and notable antiviral potential with no signs of skin sensitization. Overall, Si-QAC-2 (C14) has the potential to be a novel disinfectant.

Original languageEnglish
Article number133470
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume466
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2024

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/toxicity
  • Silanes
  • Disinfectants/toxicity
  • Drosophila melanogaster
  • Molecular Docking Simulation
  • Organosilicon Compounds

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