Age, Insulin Requirements, Waist Circumference, and Triglycerides Predict Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

Juan J. Chillarón, Mercè Fernández-Miró, Mercè Albareda, Lluís Vila, Cristina Colom, Sara Fontserè, Juan Pedro-Botet, Juana A. Flores-Le Roux, C. Colom, M. Fernández, N. Ascoeta, D. Benaiges, M. J. Carrera, J. J. Chillarón, E. Climent, J. A. Flores Le-Roux, A. Goday, L. Mañé, A. Más, J. Pedro-BotetJ. Puig, M. Renard, E. Sagarra, M. Albareda, L. Vila, M. Prados, J. Ripollés

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Abstract

© 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Introduction: The prevalence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is higher than in the general population and leads to detrimental effects on metabolic control, lipid profile, and body composition. Few studies have examined its role in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HH in patients with type 1 diabetes and associated risk factors. Main Outcome Measures: Clinical and biochemical parameters were gathered on initial evaluation. An HH score creating different experimental models was devised to calculate the risk of HH for an individual with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 181 male patients with type 1 diabetes consecutively admitted to the Diabetes outpatient clinics of three urban hospitals. All participants were Caucasians aged≥18 years with type 1 diabetes duration of more than 6 months. Results: One hundred and eighty-one male patients with a mean age of 44.2±13.2 years and a type 1 diabetes duration of 18.9±12.7 years were included. Fifteen patients had HH, representing a prevalence of 8.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3-12.3%). Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.066 [95% CI: 1.002-1.134]), waist circumference (OR 1.112 [95% CI: 1028-1203]), and insulin requirements ([IU/Kg] ×10 [OR 1.486 {95% CI: 1052-2.098}]) were independently associated with the presence of HH. The model that best predicted HH generated this formula: HH-score=(1.060×age)+(1.084×waist circumference)+(14.00×insulin requirements)+triglycerides, where age was expressed in years, waist circumference in cm, insulin requirements in IU/kg/d, and triglycerides in mg/dL. An HH score>242.4 showed 100% sensitivity and 53.2% specificity for HH diagnosis; positive and negative predictive values were 17.0 % and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: One in 10 men with type 1 diabetes presents HH. This condition is associated with age, waist circumference, and insulin requirements. A simple formula based on clinical parameters can rule out its presence.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)76-82
JournalJournal of Sexual Medicine
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015

Keywords

  • Diabetes Complications
  • Hypogonadism
  • Low Testosterone in Men with Diabetes
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Type 1 Diabetes

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