Acute phase proteins in cattle and swine: A review

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18 Citations (Scopus)


The major acute phase proteins (APPs) in cattle are haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), and in swine, are Hp, SAA, C-reactive protein (CRP), and Pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP). Many methodologic assays are presently available to measure these parameters, which are still being improved to increase their specificity, sensitivity, user-friendliness, and economic availability. In cattle, the main applications are the diagnosis and monitoring of frequent diseases such as mastitis and metritis in dairy cows and respiratory problems in young calves. In pigs, APPs are useful in the control of bacterial and viral infections, and they may be used at the slaughterhouse to monitor subclinical pathologies and improve food safety. The utility of APP in animal production must not be forgotten; optimization of protocols to improve performance, welfare, and nutrition may benefit from the use of APPs. Other sample types besides serum or plasma have potential uses; APP determination in milk is a powerful tool in the control of mastitis, saliva is a non-invasive sample type, and meat juice is easily obtained at the slaughterhouse. Increasing our knowledge of reference intervals and the influence of variables such as age, breed, sex, and the season is important. Finally, worldwide harmonization and standardization of analytical procedures will help to expand the use of APPs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)50-63
Number of pages14
JournalVeterinary Clinical Pathology
Volume52 Suppl 1
Issue numberS1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Acute phase response
  • C-reactive protein
  • Haptoglobin
  • ITIH4
  • Pig- MAP
  • Serum amyloid A


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