Acute-phase dynamics and prognostic value of growth differentiation factor-15 in ST-elevation myocardial infarction

Ferran Rueda, Josep Lupón, Cosme Garciá-Garciá, German Cediel, M. Cruz Aranda Nevado, Judith Serra Gregori, Carlos Labata, Teresa Oliveras, Marc Ferrer, Oriol De Diego, Jordi Serra, Elena Revuelta López, Antoni Bayés-Genís

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12 Citations (Scopus)


© 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is prognostic in first-generation radioimmunoassays. We examined GDF-15 temporal dynamics in STEMI and its predictive value using a first fully automated GDF-15 electrochemiluminescence assay. In this prospective study, circulating GDF-15 concentration was measured at admission (0 h), 12 h and 24 h in 1026 consecutive STEMI patients treated between February 2011 and May 2016 with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. GDF-15 dynamics (0 h, 12 h, 24 h) and predictive value (30 days and 3 years) were examined. Median GDF-15 concentration was 1443 pg/mL at 0 h, 1731 pg/mL at 12 h and 1510 pg/mL at 24 h (p<0.001). During follow-up, 94 patients died (9.2%) and 154 (15.0%) were hospitalized. GDF-15 was a strong predictor of 30-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-2.34 at 0 h; HR 2.99 [95% CI, 2.18-4.09] at 12 h, and HR 1.97 [95% CI, 1.47-2.63] at 24 h) in multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. GDF-15 improved discrimination and reclassification of a clinical risk model. GDF-15 was also associated with 3-year mortality (HR 1.31 [95% CI, 1.04-1.65] at 0 h, HR 1.42 [95% CI, 1.10-1.84] at 12 h, and HR 1.51 [95% CI, 1.16-1.96] at 24 h) and 3-year composite of mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization (HR 1.17 [95% CI, 1.01-1.37] at 0 h, HR 1.20 [95% CI, 1.02-1.42] at 12 h, and HR 1.27 [95% CI, 1.08-1.50] at 24 h). GDF-15 peaked at 12 h and remained elevated at 24 h in STEMI. GDF-15 measurement during the first 24 h in STEMI is valuable for predicting especially short-but also long-term outcomes, and may be a useful addition to risk stratification.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1093-1101
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019


  • biomarkers
  • growth differentiation factor 15
  • prognosis
  • ST-elevation myocardial infarction


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