The frequency distribution and severity of the cardiac disease underlying acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (APE) to define appropriate subsequent diagnostic and management strategies were investigated in 216 consecutive patients. To this effect, the clinical, electrocardiographic, ecocardiographic and angiographic characteristics were analyzed. Coronary artery disease was identified in 185 patients (86%) - 146 with acute myocardial infarction - as the underlying cause, isolated valvular disease in 10 (5%) and other causes in 21 (11%). Most patients were elderly (≥70 years, 72%), hypertensive (71%) and diabetic (44%). Among coronary disease (CAD) patients, however, 105 (57%) showed conduction disturbances in the ECG (QRS>0.10 s) and 84 (45%) had no anginal pain during pulmonary edema. A 2D echocardiogram showed a 30% incidence of moderate-severe mitral regurgitation in coronary disease and non-coronary disease patients, and a 67% incidence of reduced ejection fraction (<50%), particularly in coronary disease patients (73%). A coronary angiography performed in 99 patients with coronary disease showed multivessel disease in 89 (91%) with a 32% incidence of significant left main disease. Therefore, these findings demonstrate that coronary disease is the most common cause of acute pulmonary edema and it is associated with a distinctly high prevalence of multivessel and left main disease. This diagnosis, however, may often be overlooked if no serial enzymatic sampling is performed given the increased frequency of conduction abnormalities and lack of anginal pain. © 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Journal||International Journal of Cardiology|
|Publication status||Published - 3 Aug 2005|
- Acute myocardial infarction
- Acute pulmonary edema
- Coronary artery disease
- Mitral regurgitation