© 2017 Navas-Madroñal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Introduction: Antibodies targeting the inward-rectifying potassium channel KIR4.1 have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) but studies using diverse techniques have failed to replicate this association. The detection of these antibodies is challenging; KIR4.1 glycosylation patterns and the use of diverse technical approaches may account for the disparity of results. We aimed to replicate the association using three different approaches to overcome the technical limitations of a single technique. We also performed a systematic review to examine the association of anti-KIR4.1 antibodies with MS. Methods: Serum samples from patients with MS (n = 108) and controls (n = 77) were tested for the presence of anti-KIR4.1 antibodies using three methods: 1) by ELISA with the low-glycosylated fraction of recombinant KIR4.1 purified from transfected HEK293 cells according to original protocols; 2) by immunocytochemistry using KIR4.1-transfected HEK293 cells; and 3) by immunocytochemistry using the KIR4.1.-transfected MO3.13 oligodendrocyte cell line. We developed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association of anti-KIR4.1 antibodies with MS according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: We did not detect anti-KIR4.1 antibodies in the MS patients or in controls using ELISA. Neither did we detect any significant reactivity against the antigen on the cell surface using the KIR4.1-transfected HEK293 cells or the KIR4.1-transfected MO3.13 cells. We included 13 prospective controlled studies in the systematic review. Only three studies showed a positive association between anti-KIR4.1 and MS. Clinical and statistical heterogeneity between studies precluded meta-analysis of their results. Conclusion: We found no association between anti-KIR4.1 antibody positivity and MS. Although this lack of replication may be due to technical limitations, evidence from our study and others is mounting against the role of KIR4.1 as a relevant MS autoantigen.