A two-level game: Spain and the promotion of democracy and human rights in Morocco

Laura Feliu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in BookChapterResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Spain has declared its aim to promote democracy and human rights abroad and specifically in Morocco. This goal appears very ambitious in view of the low degree of institutionalization and consolidation of Spanish human rights foreign policy mechanisms. Moreover, from the outset other factors rule out the possibility of Morocco becoming an object of forceful action: it has a better human rights situation than other North African countries and is of vital importance to Spain, which fears that its own interests could be adversely affected by a resort to coercive policies. Having discarded the use of negative instruments, the route of incentives and rewards for positive evolution entails fewer risks for the promoter country, and seems reasonably appropriate in the case of Morocco. But circumstances such as the low profile of Spanish co-operation policy and the distrust of Spanish civil society towards Morocco have also prevented greater use of actions of a more positive nature.

Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationEuro-Mediterranean Relations After September 11
Subtitle of host publicationInternational, Regional and Domestic Dynamics
Number of pages23
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2003

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