A two-level game: Spain and the promotion of democracy and human rights in Morocco

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Abstract

Spain has declared its aim to promote democracy and human rights abroad and specifically in Morocco. This goal appears very ambitious in view of the low degree of institutionalization and consolidation of Spanish human rights foreign policy mechanisms. Moreover, from the outset other factors rule out the possibility of Morocco becoming an object of forceful action: it has a better human rights situation than other North African countries and is of vital importance to Spain, which fears that its own interests could be adversely affected by a resort to coercive policies. Having discarded the use of negative instruments, the route of incentives and rewards for positive evolution entails fewer risks for the promoter country, and seems reasonably appropriate in the case of Morocco. But circumstances such as the low profile of Spanish cooperation policy and the distrust of Spanish civil society towards Morocco have also prevented greater use of actions of a more positive nature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90-111
JournalMediterranean Politics
Volume8
Issue number2-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2003

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