A Three-Gene panel on urine increases PSA specificity in the detection of prostate cancer

Marina Rigau, Israel Ortega, Maria Carmen Mir, Carlos Ballesteros, Marta Garcia, Marta Llauradõ, Eva Colás, Núria Pedrola, Melania Montes, Tamara Sequeiros, Tugce Ertekin, Blanca Majem, Jacques Planas, Anna Ruiz, Miguel Abal, Alex Sánchez, Juan Morote, Jaume Reventõs, Andreas Doll

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40 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND Several studies have demonstrated the usefulness of monitoring an RNA transcript, such as PCA3, in post-prostate massage (PM) urine for increasing the specificity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa). However, a single marker may not necessarily reflect the multifactorial nature of PCa. METHODS We analyzed post-PM urine samples from 154 consecutive patients, who presented for prostate biopsies because of elevated serum PSA (>4 ng/ml) and/or abnormal digital rectal exam. We tested whether the putative PCa biomarkers PSMA, PSGR, and PCA3 could be detected by quantitative real-time PCR in post-PM urine sediment. We combined these findings to test if a combination of these biomarkers could improve the specificity of actual diagnosis. Afterwards, we specifically tested our model for clinical usefulness in the PSA diagnostic "gray zone" (4-10 ng/ml) on a target subset of 82 men with no prior biopsy. RESULTS By univariate analysis, we found that the PSMA, PSGR, and PCA3 scores were significant predictors of PCa. Using a multiplex model, the area under the multi receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.74 versus 0.82 in the diagnostic "gray zone." Fixing the sensitivity at 96%, we obtained a specificity of 34% and 50% in the gray zone. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, these results provide a strategy for the development of a more accurate model for PCa diagnosis. In the future, a multiplexed, urine-based diagnostic test for PCa with a higher specificity, but the same sensitivity as the serum-PSA test, could be used to determine better which patients should undergo biopsy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1736-1745
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2011


  • biomarkers
  • PCA3
  • prostate cancer
  • PSA
  • PSGR
  • PSMA
  • urine


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