© 2017 Elsevier B.V. A fast double-flow microfluidic based liquid phase microextraction (DF-µLPME) combined with a HPLC-UV procedure using diode array detection has been developed for the determination of the four most widely used parabens: Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (EtP), Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (PrP), Butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (BuP) and IsoButyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (iBuP) in water samples. Parabens have successfully been determined in environmental (lake and river water) samples with excellent clean up, high extraction efficiency and good enrichment factor using double-flow conditions. The microfluidic device consists of two micro-channels, which contain the acceptor and sample solution separated by a flat membrane (support liquid membrane). The sample (0.32 mM HCl) and acceptor phase (5.6 mM NaOH) are delivered to the µLPME at 10 µL min−1 and 1 µL min−1 flow rate, respectively. The extraction efficiencies are over 84% for all compounds in water samples with enrichment factors within the range of 9–11 and recoveries over 80%. The procedure provides very low detection limits between 1.6 and 3.5 µg L−1. The extraction time and the volume required for the extraction are 5 min and 50 µL, respectively; which are greatly lower compared to any previous extraction procedure for parabens analysis. In addition, this miniaturized DF- µLPME procedure significantly reduces costs compared to not only the existing methods for paraben detection, but also to the existing analytical techniques for sample preparation.
- Sample preparation
- Water samples