This paper introduces electronic tongue systems for remote environmental monitoring applications. This new approach in the chemical sensor field consists of the use of an array of non-specific sensors coupled with a multivariate calibration tool which may form a node of a sensor network. In our work, the proposed arrays were made up of potentiometric sensors based on polymeric membranes, and the subsequent cross-response processing was based on a multilayer artificial neural network model. Two cases are described: the environmental monitoring of ammonium pollutant plus alkaline ions at different measuring sites in the states of Mexico and Hidalgo (Mexico), and the monitoring of heavy metals (Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+) in open air waste streams and rivers heading down the Gulf of Mexico. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
|Journal||Environmental Modelling and Software|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Sept 2010|
- Artificial neural networks
- Electronic tongue
- Environmental monitoring
- Ion-selective electrodes
- Sensor array