Background: The induction of angiogenesis after stroke may enhance neurorestorative processes. Our aim was to examine the endogenous angiogenesis balance and their association with long-term clinical outcome in ischemic stroke patients. Methods: A total of 109 stroke subjects were included in the study. Firstly, plasma samples were obtained from control subjects (n=26) and tPA-treated stroke patients (n=29) at baseline (within 3h of symptoms onset), 1, 2, 12, 24h after tPA treatment, at discharge and 3 months after the ischemic event. Angiogenic promoters (PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, HGF, FGF, KGF, HB-EGF, TPO, VEGF, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and SDF-1α) and inhibitors (endostatin, angiostatin, thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2) were analyzed by Searchlight® technology or ELISA. Additionally, baseline and 24h endostatin plasma level was determined in a new set of stroke patients (n=80). Clinical parameters (NIHSS, mRS, mortality and hemorrhagic transformation events) were assessed to evaluate outcome. Results: Baseline PDGF-BB, endostatin and thrombospondin-2 levels were higher in stroke patients than in controls (p< 0.05). A pro-angiogenic balance was associated with lower NIHSS scores and less intracranial hemorrhagic complications. Interestingly, a high baseline endostatin level was associated to long-term functional dependency (mRS > 2; p= 0.004). Finally, a baseline endostatin cut-off point of 184. ng/mL was an independent predictor of functional dependency at three months in the multiple logistic regression with an odds ratio of 8.9 (95% CI: 2.7-28.8; p= 0.0002). Conclusions: Our results indicate that an early pro-angiogenic balance is associated with mild short-term neurological deficit, while an acute anti-angiogenesis status determined by high endostatin plasma level predicts a worse long-term functional outcome. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
|Publication status||Published - 1 May 2011|