© 2018 Kroesen, Rodríguez-Martínez, García, Rosales, Díaz, Martín-Céspedes, Tapia, Sarrias, Cardona and Vilaplana. An excessive, non-productive host-immune response is detrimental in active, chronic tuberculosis (TB) disease as it typically leads to tissue damage. Given their anti-inflammatory effect, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can potentially attenuate excessive inflammation in active TB disease. As such, we investigated the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of low-dose aspirin (LDA) (3 mg/kg/day), either alone or in combination with common anti-TB treatment or BCG vaccination, on disease outcome in an experimental murine model of active TB. Survival rate, bacillary load (BL) in lungs, and lung pathology were measured. The possible mechanism of action of LDA on the host's immune response was also evaluated by measuring levels of CD5L/AIM, selected cytokines/chemokines and other inflammatory markers in serum and lung tissue. LDA increased survival, had anti-inflammatory effects, reduced lung pathology, and decreased bacillary load in late-stage TB disease. Moreover, in combination with common anti-TB treatment, LDA enhanced survival and reduced lung pathology. Results from the immunological studies suggest the anti-inflammatory action of LDA at both a local and a systemic level. Our results showed a systemic decrease in neutrophilic recruitment, decreased levels of acute-phase reaction cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) at late stage and a delay in the decrease in T cell response (in terms of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-10 serum levels) that occurs during the course of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. An anti-inflammatory milieu was detected in the lung, with less neutrophil recruitment and lower levels of tissue factor. In conclusion, LDA may be beneficial as an adjunct to standard anti-TB treatment in the later stage of active TB by reducing excess, non-productive inflammation, while enhancing Th1-cell responses for elimination of the bacilli.
- Host-directed therapies
- Mouse model
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs