The analysis of chromosomal aberrations allows to study properly the different mechanisms implicated in the radiation-induced DNA damage, and in the radio-induced carcinogenesis. The most used method is the analysis of dicentric chromosomes in uniform-stained metaphases. With this methodology the Biological Dosimetry was developed (to estimate a dose from a concrete exposure by the frequency of the induced chromosome aberrations). The introduction of FISH techniques, analysing specific chromosomes, highlighted by DNA-probes, has permitted to distinguish translocations improving the retrospective studies, and to describe a wide range of complex aberrations. Nowadays the possibility to differentiate in the same metaphase spread all human chromosomes with M-FISH is considered a new methodology that will analyse more correctly the induced damage. On the other hand, there are individuals with genetic traits (genomic instability syndromes) that show a major predisposition to cancer, and more sensitivity to clastogenic agents. The proposed project is to investigate cytogenetically Low-energy photons, as the used for radio-diagnosis, the energy of 29 kV, typical of mammography, will be specially studied. There are evidences indicating a higher biological effect than the assumed. For this reason it is proposed to determine the Relative Biological Effectiveness of photons used in radio-diagnosis, to evaluate at different energies if in the radio-induced chromosomal aberrations, the chromosomes are randomly reorganised, or if there are some exchanges more frequent than expected. Moreover, it is proposed to evaluate the radio-sensitivity to X-rays of 29 kV in females with genetic predisposition to develop breast cancer (carriers of mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 genes)
|Effective start/end date||1/01/04 → 31/12/07|
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