Identification of genetic variation in the swine toll-like receptors and development of a porcine TLR genotyping array



Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLR) are crucial in innate immunity for the recognition of a broad range of microbial pathogens and are expressed in multiple cell types. There are 10 TLR genes described in the pig genome. Results With a twofold objective i.e. to catalogue genetic variants in porcine TLR genes and develop a genotyping array for genetic association studies on immune-related traits, we combined targeted sub-genome enrichment and high-throughput sequencing to sequence the 10 porcine TLR genes in 266 pigs from 10 breeds and wild boars using a DNA-pooling strategy. We identified 306 single nucleotide variants across the 10 TLR and 11 populations, 87 of which were novel. One hundred and forty-seven positions i.e. six stop-gains and 141 non-synonymous substitutions were predicted to alter the protein sequence. Three positions were unique to a single breed with alternative allele frequencies equal to or higher than 0.5. We designed a genotyping array for future applications in genetic association studies, with a selection of 126 variants based on their predicted impact on protein sequence. Since TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 were underrepresented in this selection, we also included three variants that were located in the 3â ˛UTR of these genes. We tested the array by genotyping 214 of the 266 sequenced pigs. We found that 93 variants that involved the 10 TLR genes were polymorphic in these animals. Twelve of these variants were novel. Furthermore, seven known variants that are associated with immune-related phenotypes are present on the array and can thus be used to test such associations in additional populations. Conclusions We identified genetic variations that potentially have an impact on the protein sequence of porcine TLR. A genotyping array with 80 non-synonymous, 10 synonymous and three 3â ˛UTR polymorphisms in the 10 TLR genes is now available for association studies in swine populations with measures on immune-related traits.
Date made available31 Mar 2016

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