Fig. 4 in Miocene small-bodied ape from Eurasia sheds light on hominoid evolution



Fig. 4. Basicranial morphology. (A) Drawing of the left basicranium of the holotype (IPS58443) of Pliobates cataloniae gen. et sp. nov., as preserved in ventral view.The jugular foramen appears artifactually larger because of the displacement of the temporal and occipital portions along the occipitotemporal suture (corrected in the reconstruction in Fig. 3). The course of the carotid canal is shown with a dashed line, based on CT images. AE, articular eminence; CAF, carotid foramen; COF, condylar fossa; EA, Eustachian aperture; EAM, external auditory meatus; EP, Eustachian process; ET, ectotympanic; FM, foramen magnum; FO, foramen ovale; GF, glenoid fossa; JF, jugular foramen; OC, occipital condyle; OTS, occipitotemporal suture; PGP, postglenoid process. (B to D) Drawings of comparable views (not to scale) in Hylobates sp. (B), Proconsul heseloni KNM RU 2036 [(C), reversed], and Victoriapithecus macinnesi KNM MB 29100a (D) (KNM, Kenyon National Museums; RU, Rusinga; MB, Maboko). Arrows denote the V-shaped, incompletely ossified ventral terminal tip of the tubular ectotympanic in the extinct taxa. [Artwork by M. Palmero]
Date made available31 Dec 2015

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