Continuous versus inpatient prophylaxis of the first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with norfloxacin

Maite Novella, Ricard Solà, German Soriano, Montserrat Andreu, Jordi Gana, Jordi Ortiz, Susana Coll, Miriam Sàbat, Maria Carme Vila, Carlos Guarner*, Francisco Vilardell

*Autor corresponent d’aquest treball

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Resum

Cirrhotic patients with ascites and low ascitic fluid total protein and/or high serum bilirubin levels are at high risk to develop the first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis during long-term follow-up. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of continuous long- term selective intestinal decontamination with norfloxacin in the prevention of this complication. One hundred nine cirrhotic patients with ascites and ascitic fluid total protein levels of ≤ 1 g/dL or serum bilirubin levels of > 2.5 mg/dL without previous spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were prospectively randomized into two groups: group 1 (n = 56) received norfloxacin, 400 mg daily administered orally, and group 2 (n = 53) was the long-term control group, receiving norfloxacin only during hospitalization. During a mean follow-up of 43 ± 3 weeks, there was one spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (1.8%) in group 1 and 9 (16.9%) in group 2 (P < .01). The incidence of community-acquired spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was lower in group 1 (1.8% vs. 13.2%, P < .05), whereas the incidence of nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (0% vs. 3.7%) and the incidence of extraperitoneal infections (25% vs. 24.5%) were similar in both groups (P = NS). The actuarial probability of survival at 18 months was 75% in group 1 and 62% in group 2 (P = NS). Resistance to norfloxacin was observed in 9 of 10 (90%) Escherichia coli isolated in infections from group 1 and in 4 of 11 (36.3%) from group 2 (P < .05). The overall incidence of infections caused by norfloxacin-resistant bacteria was higher in group 1 (19.6% vs. 15%), but it did not reach statistical significance. Continuous long-term selective intestinal decontamination with norfloxacin is effective in preventing the first spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients at high risk. However, the emergence of infections caused by norfloxacin-resistant bacteria must be weighed carefully against the benefits of continuous long-term prophylaxis.

Idioma originalEnglish
Pàgines (de-a)532-536
Nombre de pàgines5
RevistaHepatology
Volum25
Número3
DOIs
Estat de la publicacióPublicada - 1997

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