Coagulation Alterations in Major Burn Patients: A Narrative Review

Patricia Guilabert, Nuria Martin, Gemma Usúa, Marina Vendrell, Maria J. Colomina, Juan P. Barret

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Resum

Major burn patients (MBP) can present multifactorial coagulation alterations induced by trauma and endothelial damage, fluid replacement therapy, hypothermia, hypoperfusion, acidosis, and activation of the inflammatory cascade. However, the multiple coagulation alterations that occur are still poorly defined. The aim of this review is to combine the results of the different coagulation tests currently used to study coagulation changes in these patients. The PubMed database was searched for articles reporting factor levels or coagulation tests using the keywords "Burns" and "Blood Coagulation". Of the 720 articles retrieved from the search, 20 were finally included in the review. Coagulopathy in the MBP differs from that of the trauma patient, insofar as the former present with an increase in factors VIII, IX, and vW on admission accompanied by an increase in fibrin and thrombin production. This is followed by activation of fibrinolysis and prolonged prothrombin (PT) and thromboplastin (aPTT) times in the first 24 hours, increased fibrinogen after 48 hours, and thrombocytosis between the second and third week. Viscoelastic testing shows a pattern that shifts from normal coagulation to a hypercoagulable state with no evidence of hyperfibrinolysis. Alterations in PT and aPTT together with elevated Factor VIII have been associated with mortality, while normalization of antithrombin, and protein C and S levels are associated with a good prognosis. Although standard coagulation tests initially show alterations, the MBP does not appear to be hypocoagulable, and viscoelastic testing shows a trend toward hypercoagulability over time. Coagulation disorders affect prognosis in the MBP.

Idioma originalEnglish
Pàgines (de-a)280-292
Nombre de pàgines13
RevistaJournal of burn care & research : official publication of the American Burn Association
Volum44
Número2
DOIs
Estat de la publicacióPublicada - 2 de març 2023

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