In this study we report a patient with chronic progressive sensory ataxia, proximal weakness, immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy, and elevated protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, who showed a good response to prednisone. Electrophysiological study disclosed abnormalities predominantly of late responses (F waves and H reflexes), with no evidence of demyelination in the peripheral nerves, suggesting motor and preganglionic sensory nerve roots as the site of the lesion. An immune-mediated pathogenesis was considered and, to identify possible target antigens, we performed bidimensional electrophoresis and a Western blot study. Based on the suspected lesion site, we used human anterior and posterior root extracts. We identified IgM reactivity against peripheral nerve myelin protein P2. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed IgM reactivity toward one synthetic peptide from P2. To our knowledge, reactivity against P2 has not been reported previously in a paraproteinemic neuropathy. Furthermore, we demonstrated that bidimensional electrophoresis and Western blot of the tissue involved, as determined by clinical and electrophysiological studies, may be useful to establish clinical-immunological correlations in paraproteinemic neuropathies. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.